There are quite a few different types of carp that you might find on the end of your line while fishing in the UK and it can be quite hard to differentiate between them.
In this article, we are going to cover the main species of carp that you are likely to catch in the UK and all the details you will need to know to identify them all. By the end, you should know what the types of carp are and be able to spot them in an instant.
How Many Carp Types Are There?
There are over 2,000 species of carp (Cyprinidae) across the world. There are 12 main carp species found across Europe and North America, 9 of these types are found in the UK, and 3 types of carp are found in North America but not in the UK.
If you want to read more about carp fishing in the United States check out my detailed article here!
Most carp belong to the Cyprinidae family and therefore most of them share some common traits. For example, common carp and mirror carp are the most common types of carp you are likely to experience but their relatives, ghost, linear, crucian, and leather carp are also likely catches.
Then you have koi carp, grass carp, and silver carp which are not relatives of the carp mentioned above.
The Types Of Carp
The mirror carp is also a member of the Cyprinidae family and are directly related to the common carp. The mirror carp was created by humans changing the breeding conditions when carp were farmed by monks in Europe almost 1000 years ago.
The monks cooked the common carp but with so many scales it was difficult and time-consuming to clean and serve up for dinner. So they began altering the common carp to reduce its number of scales and so the mirror carp was born.
You will find mirror carp in still-water lakes and ponds but not in rivers as they are not adapted to the moving water you find in rivers.
What Does A Mirror Carp Look Like?
Mirror carp get their name from the patches of scales or individual scales they have on their body. The scales can be scattered and be of different sizes, and even be found on any random part of the body.
This makes each Mirror Carp unique as they each have a specific scale pattern that allows anyone to identify individual fish. At carp fishing lakes where anglers fish the same lake often, will name a specific fish based on its scale patterns.
Mirror carp have a deep round shape to them and can get very wide and fat. Even though mirror carp can get rather rotund they can also be rather slim and beautiful. They are brown in colour and when you hook the big ones they fight very hard.
How Big Do Mirror Carp Get?
Being quite a fatty species of carp with a round body, mirror carp are actually on average larger than most other carp of equal length, especially common carp.
The average weight of a mirror carp is between 15 and 25lbs but some true monsters do exist beyond the 40 lbs mark. A 50 lb mirror carp is a massive specimen and the record mirror carp in the UK is a whopping 71 lbs!
The world record mirror carp is an astonishing 112 lbs and 14 ounces and it was actually caught in Hungary at a fishery called Euro Aqua.
The common carp is native to Asia but now you can find them all over the world. They were farmed in Asia for centuries and were finally farmed in Europe in the 1100s but didn’t make it to the UK until the 1500s, and the US until the 1700s.
Common carp are the most widespread of all the carp found in the UK.
What Does A Common Carp Look Like?
Common carp, unlike mirror carp, are covered in stunningly symmetrical scales which gives them a kind of golden sheen. This means they are impossible to identify as individuals as they do not have any unique features.
Common carp usually have a long slender torpedo shape and this is because they were originally river fish that used to have to fight the current and stay lean to do so. But, lake or pond-bred common carp can be round and wide-bodied like mirror carp.
Common carp are bronze in colour and can sometimes have a red or orange tail fin. They are pretty-looking carp, especially when long and torpedo-shaped. They also fight very hard as they are used to living in rivers which is why anglers love to catch them.
How Big Do Common Carp Get?
Common carp aren’t quite as big as mirror carp when it comes to average sizes and a good-sized common carp is considered to be over 30 lbs, while an average-sized fish is in the 10 to 20 lbs range.
The current UK record stands at around 64 lbs, so there are some giant common carp out there.
Grass carp are very distant relatives to the common carp and while still being a member of the Cyprinidae family they are a completely separate fish altogether.
The grass carp were also farmed in Asia to feed the population and again they were introduced to Europe and the US for one purpose, weed control, since they eat a lot of weeds, hence the name.
Grass carp are incredibly strong carp and they pull harder than all the others in my opinion although they are a bit tricky to catch.
What Does A Grass Carp Look Like?
Grass carp look a little bit like common carp thanks to their similar scale patterns but their long torpedo shape makes them look quite different and they don’t have the barbles that most carp have near their mouth.
They have a golden colour to them thanks to their scales but their head and tail are much darker in colour. These carp have a big tail and combined with their torpedo shape, this makes them a real handful during the fight.
How Big Do Grass Carp Get?
Grass carp on average are a similar size to mirror carp and common carp usually hitting the 15 to 30 lb mark. If you land a grass carp over 40 lbs then you have caught a giant and something near 50 lbs is a catch of a lifetime.
Grass carp in the UK don’t grow to huge sizes with the UK record sitting at 53 lbs, while the world record is a crazy 87 lbs which was caught in Bulgaria.
You probably associate koi carp with Japan as the word Koi is Japanese and it means “brocaded carp”. Koi carp were first bred in Japan in the 1800 and used as decorative fish in their stunning Japanese gardens due to their beautiful colours.
The idea of having decorative koi carp at home quickly caught on around the globe and a large koi carp is worth a lot of money. People even steal them from ponds to sell them for a big profit.
Koi carp have managed to find their way into a few carp fisheries too but this is not a common occurrence.
What Does A Koi Carp Look Like?
Koi carp are stunningly beautiful and can come in every colour out there and hundreds of different variants. This makes them quite exotic and always a surprise when you hook one and see the stunning colours.
You can find mirror koi carp and common koi carp, as they are closely related and there is a chance that you may find a mirror koi at the end of your line or possibly a ghost koi too. They have their own colours but the scale patterns are similar and they have barbels like common and mirror carp.
How Big Do Koi Carp Get?
Koi carp are, on average, a bit smaller than most other types of carp and a 10-20 lb fish will be considered average and anything over 25 lb is a solid fish.
They don’t tend to grow very big in lakes but in a pond, they get much bigger and can push over 80lbs in some cases. The record koi carp caught in the UK was around 47 lbs.
A linear carp is another relative or variation of the mirror carp and it can be easily confused with mirror carp if you don’t know how to identify them.
What Does A Linear Carp Look Like?
Linear carp is one of the most beautiful carp out there and this is often the opinion of most carp anglers too.
They get their name from having a line of stunning scales that flow across their lateral line which is unlike any other carp out there. This line of scales is pretty much the only scales you will find on a linear carp.
But, being a relative of a mirror carp, it can have random patches of scales on other parts of the body too. They can also be called zip carp or line carp, as the scales look like zip or are in a straight line.
Its body shape is very similar to a mirror carp with a wide round body but it doesn’t hold as much fat as a mirror carp.
How Big Do Linear Carp Get?
Linear carp do not grow as big as their mirror carp relatives and a fish over the 30 lb mark would be considered quite a huge fish.
On average you should expect to catch a linear carol of around 12 to 25 lbs but they are not as commonly found in fisheries as mirror carp or common carp. Linear carp are quite rare and can only be found in specific lakes around the UK
Leather carp are a result of genome sequencing changes that were used in Asia, particularly South Korea to farm these carp for food purposes. They are therefore very different from both common carp and mirror carp.
What Does A Leather Carp Look Like?
Leather carp are sometimes referred to as nude carp as they have none or few scales on their body and look a bit like leather, hence the name leather carp. You might find one or two scales next to their tail fin and close to the dorsal but that is it.
Having almost no scales whatsoever means that identifying a leather carp is incredibly easy as it needs to be since they have a very similar body shape to that of a mirror carp. But, the body has a dark browny grey colour to it which should also help identify them a little easier.
How Big Do Leather Carp Get?
Leather carp don’t grow as big as mirrors and have an average size of 10-20 lbs and a leather carp over 30 lbs would be thought of as a serious fish.
The UK record for a leather carp is an amazing 54 lbs and 8 oz and it’s thought that this fish was over 50 years old.
Ghost carp are a result of a hybrid between a common carp and an Ogan koi carp. Ghost carp are typically named “ghosties” by many anglers. They are also sometimes referred to as ghost koi.
What Does A Ghost Carp Look Like?
Ghost carp are normally silver or white in colour which explains the reference to a ghost. Another distinctive difference from other carp is they have metallic and dark ring markings on their head (around the eyes) and bodies. These rings tend to create a ghost-like look, particularly when they are swimming underwater.
Crucian carp is a fully scaled small to medium-sized carp and is known to be one of the tougher carp to catch. They are also very hardy fish that can survive extreme cold or hot weather better than most fish species.
Crucians are a native species of the UK and are native to British waters meaning they have not been introduced like the other carp species. They are fondly referred to as crucians.
What Does A Crucian Carp Look Like?
Crucian carp look similar to the common carp as far as their scales are concerned. However, it does not have any barbels around its mouth and has a deeper girth compared to most other carp.
The body colour of a crucian naturally alters based on the type of water it lives in, usually, they are a deep golden bronze, or in some cases black.
How Big Do Crucian Carp Get?
Crucians are one of the smallest carp with an average size of 1lb to 2lbs and any of over 3 lbs would be considered a large specimen.
The UK record for a crucian carp was caught at 4lb 12oz in 2021. The fish was caught in Johnsons Lake, Surrey.
Full-Scaled Mirror Carp
A full-scaled mirror carp is a variant of the mirror carp we mentioned earlier in this article except it will be fully covered or almost fully covered by scales instead of having patches of scales. This makes them a little easy to mix up with common carp but the larger scales should give them away quite easily.
Catching a full-scaled mirror carp is awesome as they are stunning beautiful carp when they are covered in those big shiny mirror scales.
In terms of body shape, they are the same as mirror carp with a round body shape.
How Big Do Full-Scaled Mirror Carp Get?
Full-scaled mirror carp don’t grow anywhere near as big as mirror carp. An average size full-scaled mirror carp will be in the 10-20 lbs range while a fish over 20 lbs would be considered a big fish.
Since fully scaled mirror carp are not judged as a different species, there is no official record.
F1 carp are last on my list and I personally do not consider them as a species like the others. An F1 is a hybrid between a common and a crucian carp.
These fish were solely farmed 30 years ago for commercial fisheries in the UK, with match anglers being the main reason for developing them. F1’s grow fast and like the crucian are very hardy, and tough-fighting fish pound for pound.
Many anglers struggle to identify an F1 carp, due to them looking very close to a common carp.
One major difference is the barbels around its upper mouth. F1 carp only have one pair of small barbels compared to common carps’ two pairs of barbels.
How Big Do F1 Carp Get?
F1s are much the same size as crucians, with an average size of 2lb to 3lbs and any of over 4 lbs would be considered a good size F1.
There are no official F1 records kept which is the reason I included F1 at the end of this article. The largest claimed to have been caught is 13lbs 10oz, at the Square Lake in the Warren Fishery, Essex, 2021.
Thanks very much for reading my article. I hope you enjoyed it and now know about most of the types of carp you might come into contact with and how to identify them.